Alaska’s Kenai Fjords National Park

The Kenai Fjords National Park is located in the southern part of Alaska in the United States. Like many other national parks and protected areas of Alaska, Kenai Fjords national Park was established under the Treaty “Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Acts” in December 1980. The Document was signed by then President Jimmy Carter. The Kenai Fjords National Park has a coastline of 966 kilometers and is 2690 square kilometers in size, which makes it the smallest National Park of Alaska.

The Kenai Fjords National Park is located in the southeastern part of the Kenai Peninsula and is a part of the Pacific Mountains. Approximately 65 percent of the Harding Ice Fields are located in the Kenai Fjords National Park. In Addition it’s home to many fjords, islands and peninsulas of the Kenai coast. The Harding Ice Field is a remnant of the ice age, a leftover from the ice surface during the Pleistocene. The Harding Ice Fields is a source of a further 30 glaciers and together they cover an area of approximately 700 square miles. The nearly flat surface interrupted by isolated peaks, are called “nunataks” by the Eskimos, which translated to “solitary peak”. Numerous small glaciers are coming from the ice field, some extend to the sea and others end up in the lakes. Along the coast, many glaciers have carved deep bays in the hilly coastline any many deep fjords emerged. The heavy vegetation of the rain forests covers the heights of the cliffs and grows about 200 feet above the ocean. The coastal area has a rich marine life with seals, sea lions, sea otters and whales. A large number of birds inhabit the cliffs during the summer. Big salmon groups are in abundance here, as well as tons of different shell animals.

The park is located about 100 miles south of Anchorage and is accessible by car, train or airplane. There are several hiking trails, which start at the ranger station at Exit Glacier. The most popular trail is a half mile long trek that leads directly to the glacier. There visitors can see into the caves beneath the glacier and listen to the sound of the glacier. There is also an approximately three miles long trail over the Harding Ice Field, but spending the night in the National Park is prohibited, so this is only for the fit. Student groups have significantly improved the hiking trails over the past four years.

Hello From Nova Scotia – Learning About Native Heritage at the Bear River First Nation Heritage

About an hour after my departure from Annapolis Royal after a beautiful drive along the shoreline of the Annapolis Basin and through the early fall colours of the Bear River Valley, (also known as “Little Switzerland”. I arrived at the Bear River First Nation Heritage and Cultural Centre. I was greeted by Wanda Joudry-Finigan and Robert (Robbie) McEwan, while Frederick Harlow was manning the cash register. All are members of the Bear River First Nation, and Wanda and Robbie proceeded to celebrate my arrival with a special welcome song.

Wanda explained that the song invites our mutual relatives, grandfathers and ancestors to join us at this occasion. The lobby of the Centre holds various artifacts and a Heritage Gallery that pays homage to current and former Chiefs and Elders of the Bear River First Nation. Wanda pointed out present Chief Frank Meuse Junior who also operates a lodge for adults and youth alike who wish to learn about the Mi’kmaq culture. Another image was of Agnes Potter, a celebrated leader and respected Elder of the Bear River First Nation.

Then I was invited to view a brief movie about Willie Meuse, Frank’s grandfather, shown in footage from the 1930s on the Bear River. The film also highlighted the construction and launching of the first birch bark canoe built since 1927. The launching took place in 2004 and speaks to the importance of the ancestors.

We left the vestibule and entered a large multi-purpose room housing a variety of interpretive displays about the life and history of the Mi’kmaq First Nation. This room is also used for theatre productions, games of sports for the youth, community card parties, holiday feasts and presentations. Frederick joined me and gave me an overview of the birch bark canoe. He explained that the canoe weighs about 90 to 95 pounds and was constructed using authentic historical canoe-building methods used in the area. The canoe is a sea-going canoe, evidenced by the high rise in the middle. Fresh-water canoes do not feature a rise in the middle of the canoe.

The vessel is constructed of various types of wood including ash and birch and the outside is covered with birch bark. Any potential openings in the canoe’s skin are patched up with a mixture of spruce gum and bear grease. Canoes used to be the main form of transportation for the First Nations People and their navigation skills, fishing and hunting knowledge helped the French settlers when they first came to this area in the 1600s. This life-size canoe was made by Todd Labrador and Cory Ryan who is a seventh generation descendent of Malti Pictou, a well-known Bear River Mi’kmaq guide. Before Cory, he was the last person to make a birch bark canoe in the area.

The next exhibit featured a variety of arts and crafts that are produced here using Mi’kmaq artistic traditions. Robbie came over to give me more insight into some of the local arts and crafts. He explained that leather is worked to produce mittens, jackets, dresses, moccasins and other items. Dreamcatchers are an important symbol to the Mi’kmaq. With their intricate web-like design they are hung to catch dreams floating through the night air. There is a saying that dreamcatchers let the good dreams through but protect you from the bad dreams.

Jewellery is made using a variety of glass beads, bone beads as well as imitation sinew. In the past moose tendons were used to produce the pendants and bracelets. Decorated deer and moose hide are available for purchase as well. Robert indicated that he recently made an ornate dress for a native chief in Newfoundland. His artistic skills are evidenced by some of the most impressive pieces of work: Robert showed me a decorative jewellery box that he is currently working on. The box is made of birch bark and porcupine quills, bordered with sweet grass whose scent I was able to smell. He explained that porcupine quills are easily removed from the animal, and they are essentially used to stitch an elaborate design. For each quill a hole is poked and the quill is pulled through. By the time this item is finished, Robert will have invested over 200 hours to produce the elaborate pattern on this decorative box.

Wanda joined us and took me to a display of a wigwam to explain certain rituals and conventions that would be adhered to in First Nations encampments. Visitors would be invited to sit in the most honourable space in the home or wigwam. The same would go for children so they would be able to see everything to the left and to the right of them in order to be able to learn. During winter mats made from rush would be used for insulation against the cold. Baskets were hand- made in order to harvest scallop, clams, or mussels. Each of these particular baskets could hold up to 10 pounds of seafood. Other baskets made from ash were used for potato and apple picking. These baskets were hand-made in large quantities in the 1900s as a major means of economic survival in changing times. Today these baskets are sold as decorative items.

The tipi also features a variety of furs, including lynx, rabbit, mink, red fox and silver fox. During the 1920s and 1930s silver foxes were a real fashion craze in England and many women had a fox fur, complete with head and legs, draped around their necks as a statement of elegance. The fox’ head would be equipped with a clasp so it could be clipped onto the lapel of the lady’s coat.

I learned that the wigwam is made of birch bark. Wigwams were lightweight, which made them easy to move from one location to another and water-resistant. Encampments would be set up near the mouth of rivers, which would provide a plentiful opportunity for food and means of travel. A large part of native diet consisted of fish; the rest was made up of berries, fruits and meats. Often fishing weirs were used for catching eels. Wanda explained that in the last few years about 800 encampments have been found in Nova Scotia with more than 4000 artifacts dating back 2,500 to 4,000 years.

Mi’kmaq hunting traditions included bear traps that were baited with fish. Once the animal was caught, women would remove the guts, the hide and the sinews and carry it back to the camp to prepare it. Excess meat and fat would be scraped off the skin with scraping tools, stones or shells. Wanda informs me that women were very highly respected in First Nations society, as they were life givers. Meals were cooked in a hollowed-out log that held red-hot stones that had been heated over a fire. Water would be poured over the food and the hot stones to cook the meal. Spices were gathered in the forest, and instead of potatoes a plant called the Jerusalem artichoke would be served with the meat. Fish and meat were dried or smoked, and eggs were gathered from marsh birds.

We moved over to a display on Mi’kmaq language and Wanda mentioned that there were 7 Mi’kmaq districts, each with their own chief. The Bear River Reservation is located in a place called “Kespukwik”, meaning “where the water stops flowing”, referring to the Bear River flowing into the Annapolis Basin. Mi’kmaq language is based on action verbs, and pronouns are important indicators of belonging and possession. For instance, the words “mother” or “sister” can never be said by themselves, they always require a pronoun to indicate whose mother we are talking about. The Mi’kmaq words would say “your mother”, “my mother”, or” his/her mother” etc.

At the next display we saw a 1936 picture of Wanda’s great-grandmother, Sarah Fossey who lived until 1961 to the ripe old age of 101. Wanda has fond memories of Sarah who used to bring her grandchildren and great-grandchildren oranges as a special treat. Sarah was captured in a movie from the 1930s that was displayed at the Bear River First Nation Heritage and Cultural Centre. Wanda was overwhelmed when she first saw moving images of her great-grandmother in the movie.

We also discussed life as a Mi’kmaq today. Wanda explained that Mi’kmaq society was matriarchal until the arrival of the first Europeans. In recent years, from the 1920s to the 1990, the government instituted a policy of residential schools where young native children were taken away from their families and taught the “white man’s ways’. This led to a significant loss in culture and heritage, women’s status eroded as a result and Mi’kmaq family structure suffered. The government wanted to force native children to “integrate” into mainstream society and in the process an ancient way of life was destroyed. Siblings were often not allowed to talk to one another and families were torn apart. Many of the native children suffered from mental, physical and sexual abuse in the residential schools. As a result of these policies, today many elders are learning the Mi’kmaq language from the younger generation.

Today there is a counter-trend where young First Nations people are rediscovering their language, culture and heritage. Of the conditions at the Bear River Reservation Wanda says that it is a managed forest and there is no poverty on the reserve, which holds about 100 people. Wanda herself has lived off the reserve for her entire life and has been self-efficient.

Wanda also explained that having “native status” is an important issue in First Nations communities. Native status confers certain benefits in terms of health care, taxation and schooling. Bill C31, introduced in 1985, improved native women’s status in the sense that they could pass native status on to their first generation children, even if the children were from a mixed native/non-native marriage. Men on the other hand can pass on native status indefinitely through the generations, even if they marry a non-native wife. This often creates economic inequality and friction within the same family where one set of cousins could have native status whereas another cousin would not officially be considered native. Even fairly recent legislation prolongs the European tradition of favouring male bloodlines.

Wanda gave me the names of several books that would provide further education about First Nations life and communities and when I said goodbye, she generously gave me two books to read as a present: “L’sitkuk – The Story of the Bear River Mi’kmaw Community” by Darlene Ricker, and “We Were Not Savages – A Mi’kmaq Perspective on the Collision between European and Native American Civilizations” by Daniel N. Paul, excellent reading material to educate myself further about native culture and history. As a parting gift she gave me a handcrafted medicine pouch that she had made herself, an example of the Mi’kmaq tradition of generosity and peacefulness.

I thanked Wanda and the entire team at the Bear River First Nation Heritage and Cultural Centre for their most interesting introduction to Mi’kmaq heritage and culture and resolved to read these books soon to educate myself. I started driving down the hill and all the people congregated at the local Bear River Band Office waved goodbye to me. It was time for me to continue my drive along the Evangeline Trail to tonight’s final destination: Yarmouth.

Cheap Hotels in Singapore Are Crucial to Attract Backpackers and Budget Travelers

Singapore, though a small country or to be more precise a city state, it is one the most developed countries in Asia. Housing several tourist destinations, Singapore tourism offers an extensive traveling experience to travelers not only from neighboring countries but from around the world.

The green vegetation, the long coast line and the unique heritage attracts the travelers from around the globe. The picturesque view and modern architecture of the city attract travelers and in consequence Singapore has become one of the most popular holiday destination.

Emerald Hill is one the most attractive tourist destinations in Singapore. Located in the region of Newton and Orchard, Emerald Hill originally was owned by a postal Clerk named William Cuppage. Later on nutmeg plantations became official and the place acquired name and fame among travelers and nature lovers. Many high profile and influential people live in Emerald hill and nearby areas. Moreover, travelers could still see and experience influence of European architecture in various buildings erected in Emerald hill. Singapore promotes travel and tourism in large scale and in this regard Singapore tourism offers attractive tour packages to travelers around the world.

Besides being an advanced country, Singapore offers wide range of employment opportunities. However, only some make to it and rest are left in large and have some hope yet. Singapore became independent late in twentieth century. The country celebrates its national day on 9th of August. The celebration is done in big way and people enjoy celebrating their independence day. Singapore is a small country and knowing its strategic weakness it does not maintain an army which could be capable of taking offensive. The major purpose of army is to protect itself from any invasion on sovereignty.

Accommodation in Singapore is not an issue as various hotels ranging form budget hotels to cheap hotels to luxury hotels offer extensive range of accommodation facilities to travelers. Whereas, luxury hotels attract business travelers, cheap and budget hotels attract backpackers and budget travelers. National stadium in Singapore is an attractive tourist spot in where you can see astounding parade on the 9th August. Hordes of hordes flock in large numbers to participate and watch parade at the ground. Similarly, fireworks followed by dances exhibit happiness of Singapore people in profound manner. You could feel the happiness and joy felt during the celebration only once you see Singapore people celebrating it.

Cheap hotels in Singapore an effort form the government of Singapore which thinks that affordable accommodation is essential to encourage travel and tourism in the country. Existing cheap hotels in Singapore such as Raffles the Plaza, Furama Riverfront Hotel, Regent Hotel, Golden Landmark Hotel, Rendezvous Hotel, Goodwood Park Hotel, Ritz Carlton Millenia Hotel, Grand Copthorne Waterfront, Raffles Hotel, Furama City Centre, and many others offer premium quality accommodation to travelers. Additionally, some other cheap Singapore hotels namely Riverview Hotel, Grand Hyatt , Sentosa Resort and Spa, Grand Mercure Roxy Hotel, Shangri-La Hotel, etc. are known globally among travelers.